Vascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States, according to a National Vital Statistics Report released in May 2013. It accounts for nearly one-third of all deaths in the US.
Kidney transplantation is the gold standard for treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as both the quality of life and survival are significantly better than is generally achieved with dialysis. However, the number of patents listed for deceased donor kidney transplantation has increased much more rapidly than the number of deceased organ donors. Consequently, wait times for deceased donor kidneys can exceed five years.